“The Human Dimension” is OSCE-speak for human rights, democracy, and humanitarian concerns.
When the Helsinki Final Act (HFA) was signed in Helsinki, Finland in 1975, it enshrined among its ten Principles Guiding Relations between participating States (the Decalogue) a commitment to “respect human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience religion or belief, for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion” (Principle VII).
In addition, the HFA included a section on cooperation regarding humanitarian issues that provided an umbrella for addressing (among other things) family reunification and working conditions for journalists.
“The Human Dimension” was a term coined during the drafting of the 1989 Vienna Concluding Document to serve as shorthand to describe the human rights and humanitarian provisions of the agreements concluded within the framework of the Helsinki process. Today, it has come to include the OSCE’s watershed commitments on democracy, the rule of law, and free and fair elections.
In any given year, the OSCE participating States address human dimension issues in multiple fora. The Human Dimension Implementation Meeting – HDIM – attracts the largest number of participants, covers the greatest range of issues, and is open to participation by civil society.
That work includes formal sessions on the full range of human rights issues as well as rule of law, free elections, and democracy-building issues. National minorities, Roma, and tolerance and nondiscrimination are also on the agenda.
U.S. Delegation Led by David Kramer
The 2015 HDIM was held September 21 to October 2 and drew 1,386 participants.
The U.S. delegation was led by David J. Kramer, Senior Director for Human Rights and Human Freedoms at the McCain Institute and former Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. It also included U.S. Ambassador to the OSCE Daniel Baer; Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Robert Berschinksi; Department of State Special Advisor for International Rights Judith Heumann; and Helsinki Commission Senior Senate Staff Representative Ambassador David T. Killion. Helsinki Commission staff participated in all aspects of the delegation’s work.
In addition to active engagement in the formal sessions, the United States participated in side events focused on specific countries or issues organized by civil society, OSCE participating States, or international organizations, and held numerous bilateral meetings with other delegations to raise and discuss human rights. Special Advisor Heumann led a panel highlighting the importance of disability rights for OSCE countries as part of a U.S. side event cosponsored with Finland.
Russia: External Aggression and Internal Repression
During the HDIM, Russia’s aggression in and against Ukraine was raised in connection with almost every agenda item for the meeting. The OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) also issued a joint report prepared with the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities detailing widespread human rights violations in Russian-occupied Crimea.
Increasing levels of repression within Russia also were raised throughout the HDIM and served to highlight the relationship between external aggression and internal repression.
In early 2015, Boris Nemtsov, an advocate for the rule of law and accountability in Russia and an outspoken Russian critic of the Russian government’s war against Ukraine, was gunned down just outside the Kremlin. Russia’s increasingly repressive government has eroded the democratic institutions that ensure a government’s accountability to its people. A free and independent media is virtually nonexistent and the remaining state-controlled media is used to propagandize disinformation, fear, bigotry, and aggression.
Azerbaijan’s Record Draws Sharp Criticism
In 2015 Azerbaijan unilaterally shuttered the OSCE Mission in Baku, effectively blocked the OSCE’s independent election observation in October, and sentenced journalist-heroine Khadija Ismayilova to 7 ½ years in prison for reporting on government corruption. The government of Azerbaijan has also escalated pressure against the family members of its critics, in a further effort to stifle dissent. As a consequence, throughout the HDIM, Azerbaijan was the subject of singular attention and criticism.
In one particularly sharp exchange with the moderator during the discussion of fundamental freedoms in the digital age, Azerbaijan challenged its critics to name at least 25 of an estimated 100 political prisoners. A partial list – 25 names – is below.
- Abilov, Abdul
- Aliyev, Intigam
- Aliyev, Nijat
- Akhundov, Rashadat
- Guliyev, Araz
- Hasanov, Nasimi
- Hashimli, Parviz
- Hazi, Seymur
- Ismayilova, Khadija
- Jabrayilova, Valida
- Jafarov, Rasul
- Karimov, Fara
- Mammadli, Anar
- Mammadov, Hilal
- Mammadov, Igar
- Mammadov, Omar
- Mirkadirov, Rauf
- Ramazanov, Rashad
- Rustamov, Aliabbas
- Rustamzada, Ilkin
- Seyidov, Elnur
- Yagublu, Tofig
- Yunusov, Arif**
- Yunus, Leyla**
- Zakharchenko, Irina
**Leyla and Arif Yunus have been released from prison since the HDIM but remain under house arrest.