Podcast: Russian Intention, Russian Aggression
From September 10 – 16, ZAPAD 2021—a major Russian military exercise that includes thousands of troops—will take place in and around Belarus. The exercise follows months of reports that the Russian military has been involved in actions that potentially could spark a major and violent confrontation between Russia and other countries, including a March deployment by Moscow of some 100,000 new troops in and around Ukraine and a June incident in the Black Sea in which Russian forces seemingly faced off against the British destroyer HMS Defender. In this episode, Lt. General Ben Hodges (Ret.) analyzes whether these developments represent a major escalation and imminent conflict with Russia; whether they are part of a deliberate, coordinated strategy by the Kremlin; and what, if any, guardrails could prevent Russian aggression against its neighbors or a direct conflict with NATO. "Helsinki on the Hill" is series of conversations hosted by the U.S. Helsinki Commission on human rights and comprehensive security in Europe and beyond. The Helsinki Commission, formally known as the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, promotes human rights, military security, and economic cooperation in 57 countries in Europe, Eurasia, and North America. Transcript | Episode 18 | Russian Intention, Russian Aggression
Confidence and Security Building Measures
In the years following the Helsinki Final Act, a key component of European security was the development of a comprehensive set of confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs) designed to reduce the risk of conflicts, increase trust among the OSCE participating States, and contribute to greater openness and transparency in the field of military planning and activities.
One of the main CSBMs is the Vienna Document, which requires participating States to exchange information on their military forces, equipment, and defense planning – for example, providing prior notification of troop maneuvers and allowing for the observation of military exercises. The Vienna Document also provides for inspections and evaluation visits that can be conducted on the territory of any participating State that has armed forces. According to the OSCE, on average, participating States undertake 90 inspections and 45 evaluation visits each year.
Helsinki Commissioners have actively promoted OSCE CSBMs through hearings, briefings, and statements, as well as through advocacy at the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly.
Staff Contact: Alex Tiersky, senior policy advisor