Name

Jordan

A member of the OSCE Mediterranean Partners, Jordan’s connection with the OSCE dates back to the Helsinki Final Act of 1975, which recognized the close relationship between European and Mediterranean security. Jordon was welcomed into the Mediterranean Partners in 1998 and has become an active participant in OSCE Mediterranean Partnership events on topics such as preventing terrorism, counter-radicalization, and border security.

In 2015, Jordan hosted the 2015 OSCE Mediterranean Conference, which focused on common security, including workshops on combating extremism, the role of interfaith dialogue, and migration.

Staff Contact: Everett Price, senior policy advisor

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  • Co-Chairman Hastings Chairs Meeting in Israel on Countering Discrimination in the Mediterranean Region; Meets with Prime Minister Olmert

    By Marlene Kaufmann, General Counsel During two days in December 2007 a unique meeting of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) occurred in Tel Aviv, Israel. For only the second time in eleven years, Israel was chosen by the OSCE participating States to host the annual Mediterranean Seminar -- a meeting designed to encourage dialogue about, and strategies for, improved cooperation between the OSCE participating States and their Mediterranean Partners for Cooperation -- Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. As Special Representative for Mediterranean Affairs of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, Co-Chairman Hastings had worked tirelessly to bring the Partners together in Israel for their annual seminar. Unfortunately, official participation by the Partner States was limited, with only Jordan and Egypt sending representatives to the plenary sessions. However, more than seventy delegates from thirty-five countries attended the seminar and robust participation by NGOs from both sides of the Mediterranean yielded spirited discussion and specific recommendations for future OSCE efforts to combat discrimination. Prior to joining the seminar, the Co-Chairman traveled to Jerusalem for a private meeting with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. The two discussed prospects for negotiations toward a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict following the Annapolis conference, as well as continued threats to Israel’s security including Iran’s ongoing nuclear program. Co-Chairman Hastings also met with Jordanian Ambassador to Israel, Ali Al-Ayed, to discuss his country’s views on the security situation in the region as well as the impact of the massive displacement of Iraqi citizens, including more than a half million who have sought refuge in Jordan. More than 4.7 million Iraqis have been displaced since 2003, including 2 million who have fled to Syria, Jordan and other countries in the region. This is the largest population displacement in the Middle East since 1948. Co-Chairman Hastings has introduced legislation to address this growing humanitarian crisis which provides aid for Jordan and other countries in the region that are hosting Iraqi refugees. The Co-Chairman’s visit also included a briefing by Israel’s Director for relations with the United Nations and International Organizations and a tour of a newly constructed desalination facility in Ashkalon, the largest in the region. Desalination is a critical part of the social and economic infrastructure of the Middle East as it is in the Co-Chairman’s congressional district and the entire State of Florida. Under the broad theme “Combating Intolerance and Discrimination and Promoting Mutual Respect and Understanding,” seminar participants examined such topics as the implementation of OSCE tolerance-related commitments in the participating States and the Mediterranean Partners for Cooperation and lessons learned; promoting respect for cultural and religious diversity and facilitating dialogue; and countering discrimination in the OSCE and Partner states. In his opening remarks to the session on Countering Discrimination in the OSCE Participating States and the Mediterranean Partners for Cooperation, Co-Chairman Hastings pointed out that combating discrimination against individuals because of their race, religion, national origin or gender is a core principle of the Helsinki Process and is essential to stable, productive, democratic societies. “The reality,” said Hastings, “is that none of our societies is immune from the ignorance, indifference or outright hatred that fosters discrimination, intolerance, and ultimately destruction of every sort.” Co-Chairman Hastings noted that hate crimes had increased 8% in the U.S. during 2007 amidst the resurgence of the noose and swastika, unfair equation of Muslims and migrants with terrorism, violent attacks on gays, and the derogatory parodying of minority groups in the media and elsewhere in society. “Elsewhere in the OSCE, the situation is not any better,” he said. “A number of European countries have voted extremist political parties into office that openly espouse xenophobic, racist, and anti-Semitic views in the name of preserving national identity and security.” These scene-setting remarks were followed by presentations from a distinguished panel including Slovenian Ambassador, Mr. Stanislav Rascan, European Commission Ambaassador Mr. Lars Erik Lundin, Israeli lawyer Ms. Gali Etzion and Professor Gert Weisskirchen, a Member of the German Bundestag and Personal Representative of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office on Combating anti-Semitism. Their remarks, and the discussion that followed, focused on combating discrimination through legal measures, including legislative initiatives, as well as implementation by courts; education, in particular for young people; special challenges regarding discrimination against women, including religious laws; and the necessity of continuing dialogue between governments, parliaments and NGOs on ways and means to empower individual citizens. In his closing remarks, Co-Chairman Hastings strongly urged the participants to focus on implementation of anti-discrimination laws and regulations and promotion of civic programs that encourage tolerance. He pointed out that all of us as individuals, and in particular government officials, have an obligation to combat intolerance and discrimination, as well as promote mutual respect and understanding. Hastings also stated his intention to visit all Mediterranean Partner countries within a year in his capacity as Special Representative for Mediterranean Affairs of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly. On May 16, 2008, Co-Chairman Hastings again traveled to Israel, accompanying Speaker Nancy Pelosi, Majority Leader Steny Hoyer, and other senior Members of Congress to mark Israel’s 60th Anniversary. Co-Chairman Hastings and the delegation met with President Peres, Prime Minister Olmert, Defense Minister Barak and Foreign Minister Livni, as well as with the leaders of the Jewish, Christian and Muslim communities in Jerusalem. The Co-Chairman also accompanied Speaker Pelosi on a side trip to Baghdad where they met with Prime Minister Maliki and the Speaker of the Iraqi Parliament, the Council. December 2008 offered the opportunity for Co-Chairman Hastings to fulfill his promise to the OSCE Mediterranean Partners Seminar and again visit all the Mediterranean Partner countries. The Co-Chairman traveled to Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Israel where he met with parliamentarians and senior government officials. Co-Chairman Hastings also met with Jordanian officials in Egypt and expressed his intention to visit Jordan to complete his tour of the region in 2009. For details of the Co-Chairman’s December 2008 visit, see “U.S. Helsinki Commission Co-Chairman Alcee L. Hastings Visits OSCE Mediterranean Partners to Advance Regional Cooperation,” Helsinki Commission Digest, Volume 40, Number 34.

  • Clearing the Air, Feeding the Fuel Tank: Understanding the Link Between Energy and Environmental Security

    Congress has an obligation to work to ensure a healthy and safe environment for the benefit of current and future generations.  To reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and achieve a healthier environment, we need a multi-faceted approach that addresses the tangled web of issues involved.  We need to foster both energy independence and clean energy. Given rising sea levels, the increasing severity of storm surges, and higher temperatures the world over, the impact of global climate change is undeniable.  Unless we act now, we will see greater and greater threats to our way of life on this planet.

  • Iraqi Refugee Crisis: The Calm before the Storm?

    By Marlene Kaufmann, General Counsel and Lale M. Mamaux, Communications Director Jordan In March, staff of the United States Helsinki Commission travelled to Amman, Jordan, an OSCE partner State, and met with government officials and leading NGOs regarding the Iraqi refugee crisis. Helsinki Commission Chairman, Congressman Alcee L. Hastings, has introduced comprehensive legislation to address this crisis, and the Commission held a hearing on April 10, regarding the impact of Iraqi refugees on OSCE States and Partners, including Jordan, Egypt and Turkey. It was revealed during the visit in Jordan that the situation on the ground is becoming increasingly desperate. Government officials emphasized the economic and infrastructure strains caused by the refugees – soaring rents, inflation, and strains on educational and medical resources, as well as water. The NGO community sees an increase in desperation among the refugee population that they are attempting to serve. This increased desperation, combined with increasing resentment among host country populations, is becoming a recipe for disaster. As a result of the widespread sectarian violence that erupted in Iraq in 2006, masses of Iraqis began fleeing to neighboring countries in the region for shelter. It is estimated that more than one million Iraqi refugees have fled to Jordan, Syria and other neighboring states, and approximately 2.2 million Iraqis have been displaced within Iraq itself. Jordan, a small Arab nation with a population of six million, has accepted almost half a million Iraqi refugees. This amounts to an 8 percent increase in the population of Jordan in essentially a year and a half. This would be the equivalent of the United States enduring a stream of 24 million people across its borders in the same time frame. Poverty, unemployment, and inflation are on the rise in the country making it extremely difficult for the Jordanian government and society to cope with the influx of refugees. In 2007, Jordan effectively sealed its borders by imposing strict visa requirements on Iraqis seeking entry, documents that most fleeing Iraqis do not have or would be required to make a dangerous trip to Baghdad to try to obtain. Jordan is not a party to the 1951 United Nations Convention on Refugees and does not have a domestic refugee law. The government does not, therefore, recognize Iraqis as residents of its country, but rather classifies them as “guests” or “visitors.” The Jordanian government does not allow Iraqis to work, however some do find jobs in the “underground” economy, which at best pay barely enough to survive and for which the threat of exploitation is significant. In many situations, men, fearing arrest and deportation, remain in hiding and rely on whatever income their wives and children can generate. Iraqis are permitted to seek medical assistance at government clinics, where they are offered the same health care benefits as uninsured Jordanians. In addition, as a result of pressure from the international community, Jordan opened its schools to Iraqi children. It is estimated that approximately 25,000 Iraqi students have enrolled for the 2007-2008 school year, a significantly smaller number than was expected. While the admission of Iraqi students is relatively low, it has nevertheless put a substantial strain on an already overburdened school system. As a result, the day-to-day needs of Iraqis continue to increase as their resources are diminishing. Multiple families are sharing a single dwelling and those seeking medical attention frequently suffer from severe depression and stress related illnesses. Many of the NGOs offering services in Jordan are attempting to address this burgeoning medical crisis but lack the resources to provide comprehensive counseling – leaving increasingly large numbers of the vulnerable Iraqi refugee population simmering in a cauldron of stress and depression. This situation does not bode well for long-term societal stability. Attempts to provide assistance to Iraqi refugees in Jordan are complicated by both the location and the mixed demographics of the population. Unlike the situation of the Palestinian refugees encamped in tent cities in the “no-man’s-land” on the Syrian border with Iraq, there are no Iraqi refugee camps in Jordan -- where the numbers and needs of the refugees could be easily identified, and to which humanitarian and other assistance could be quickly and efficiently delivered. Rather, Iraqi refugees in Jordan are dispersed throughout Amman and the surrounding areas. A number of refugees -- some of whom came to Jordan to escape the regime of Saddam Hussein, returned to Iraq after his fall, and now have taken up residence again in Jordan -- are quite wealthy, and are obviously able to fend for themselves. The bulk of Iraqi refugees in Jordan, however, arrived with few resources or have now, as is the case with those who were “middle class” when they fled, completely depleted whatever income they may have had from savings, or selling their homes and possessions. The Jordanian government made it quite clear that they want Iraqi refugees to be treated humanely, yet they do not want Iraqis to permanently settle in Jordan. This fact was reinforced at an international conference hosted by Jordan on March 18, during which Foreign Minister Salah Al-Bashir remarked, “But the main challenge now is to find the right environment for a political settlement in Iraq that would restore security and stability, helping Iraqi refugees return home, because there is no other alternative.” While the Jordanian government sees no alternative for Iraqis other than return, the reality is quite different. Many NGOs in Jordan are looking at this from a long-term perspective with some estimates of Iraqis staying for at least ten years, or perhaps permanently. Many Iraqis who fled have had a close family member or friend killed, threatened, kidnapped, or tortured, making return extremely difficult if not impossible. As resources are depleted and Iraqis become more and more desperate to survive, the economy will not be the main source of worry for host countries. Increasingly desperate refugees interacting on a daily basis with increasingly resentful host country populations could sow the seeds of instability on the streets of Amman and Damascus – the current situation may just be the calm before the storm. In Congress, Commission Chairman Hastings, who is also Special Representative on Mediterranean Affairs for the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, has introduced comprehensive legislation to address this humanitarian and potential security crisis. In January, Chairman Hastings and Congressman John Dingell wrote to President Bush requesting an additional $1.5 billion in funding in the FY 2009 budget, and also called on Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice to layout a long-term plan to address the plight of Iraqi refugees and internally displaced populations (IDPs). In April, Chairman Hastings joined with Congressman Bill Delahunt and nine of his Congressional colleagues in sending a bipartisan letter to Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki urging the government of Iraq to use $1 billion (4 percent) of the expected $25 billion budget surplus to assist Iraqi refugees and IDPs. Additionally, Commission Co-Chairman Senator Benjamin L. Cardin was successful in offering an amendment to the Labor, Health and Human Services, Education Appropriations bill last year. Co-Chairman Cardin’s amendment provides six months of eligibility for resettlement assistance to Iraq Special Immigrant Visa (SIV) holders when they arrive here in the United States, ensuring that Iraqis are able to make the transition to a productive life in the United States by providing preliminary housing, school enrollment and job assistance. On April 10, the Helsinki Commission held a hearing on the Iraqi refugee crisis which focused on the impact of the massive displacement of Iraqi citizens on Jordan, Syria, Egypt and Turkey as well as other countries in the region; the security implications of this humanitarian crisis; and efforts by the United States and others to address the plight of Iraqi refugees, including humanitarian relief, resettlement of Iraqi refugees, host country commitments, and European cooperation as well as the development of a long-term plan to address this crisis. Testifying before the Commission were Ambassador James Foley, Senior Coordinator for Iraqi Refugees, U.S. Department of State; Ms. Lori Scialabba, Senior Advisor to the Secretary of Homeland Security for Iraqi Refugees, Department of Homeland Security; Mr. Michel Gabaudan, Washington Director, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); Mr. Anders Lago, Mayor of Sodertalje, Sweden; and Mr. Noel Saleh, Member, Board of Directors, Arab Community Center for Economic and Social Services (ACCESS). During the hearing Ambassador Foley stated that the resettlement of Iraqi refugees to the United States “is turning around.” He added, “You are going to see in the coming months, especially in the late spring and summer, tremendous numbers of Iraqi refugees arriving in the United States.” Mayor Lago of Sodertalje, Sweden whose town has a population of 83,000 and has taken in more than 5,000 Iraqi refugees noted “The millions of refugees in the world must be a concern for us all, not just for those areas bordering on the breeding grounds of war, or for a small number of countries and cities such as Sodertalje.” He further noted, “Despite the fact that we need immigrants, Sodertalje has become a town that must now say - STOP, STOP, STOP! Do not misunderstand me. We will always help others when we can. We must act when the lives of our brothers and sisters are in danger. It is imperative that we have a humane refugee policy worldwide. Our common agreement, that all people are equal, no matter what color religion or gender must become a reality.” The hearing came on the heels of General David Petraeus’ and Ambassador to Iraq Ryan Crocker’s testimony before Congress about the Iraq war. Turkey Helsinki Commission staff also travelled to Ankara and Istanbul, Turkey and held meetings with leading NGOs as well as staff of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. While the main focus of the trip was the Iraqi refugee crisis, staff also discussed U.S.-Turkey bilateral relations, human trafficking, migration, security threats posed to Turkey by the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) – a known terrorist organization, as well as Turkey’s cooperation in Iraq. It is estimated that Turkey is currently hosting 6,000-10,000 Iraqi refugees. Unlike Jordan and Syria, Turkey is a party to the 1951 UN refugee convention. Turkey, however, imposes a “geographical limitation” on its commitments under that agreement and only recognizes refugees arriving from Europe. Iraqis entering Turkey from non-European countries are treated as asylum-seekers. UNHCR-Turkey has assumed responsibility for processing these individuals and it then submits its recommendations to the Turkish government. The Turkish government, however, ultimately determines the status of asylum-seekers making the registration process time-consuming and confusing. Those who have registered with UNHCR for asylum can wait up to nine months to be fully processed and are not entitled to any assistance during that period. In the interim, the refugees are reliant upon the charity of the communities in which they have settled or must fend for themselves on the streets. Iraqi refugees entering Turkey are not permitted to reside in Ankara or Istanbul – where they may have relatives or access to an established Iraqi community – but are directed to a number of “satellite cities” in different locations throughout Turkey. In most instances, there is no Iraqi community or support system in these remote locations, making resettlement, access to services, and integration into the local community extremely difficult for the refugees. The Turkish government has accepted in principle the establishment of seven ‘Reception Centers,’ to provide services to refugees from Iraq – planned in or near the satellite cities to which they are currently directed. These centers would be co-financed with the European Commission (EC). The EC would pay 75 percent of the project and the Turkish government would pay the remaining 25 percent. However, the day-to-day oversight and financial obligations would fall to the Turkish government. While the EC indicated that these centers would be used to house Iraqi refugees with a capacity of 750 per center, Turkish officials gave the impression that these centers would be for migrant workers and victims of human trafficking. In addition to the seven Reception Centers, the EC will finance two Removal Centers for those Iraqis eligible to be processed for resettlement. The Helsinki Commission will monitor the development of these centers, their location, populations to be accepted, operation and services offered in view of concerns that they may become isolated “camps” where Iraqi refugees and other vulnerable populations are warehoused until they receive final status determinations or resettlement. Sulukule Helsinki Commission staff visited Sulukule in Istanbul, which has been home to a Roma community since 1054 and is one of the oldest Romani settlements in Europe. Sulukule is on the brink of total demolition, due in part to an urban transformation project developed by the Fatih and Greater Istanbul municipalities as part of Istanbul’s participation in the 2010 European Capital of Culture event. The outcome of this urban renewal plan will destroy an historical neighborhood and force 3,500 residents of Sulukule 25 miles (40 kilometers) outside of the city to the district of Tasoluk or, worse, onto the streets of Istanbul. The Roma community in Sulukule is living on the fringes of society and continues to be treated unfairly. Instead of implementing an urban renewal project that would preserve this centuries-old neighborhood and allow the Roma there to remain together as a community, they will be dispersed and forced to migrate elsewhere. The Romani residents of Sulukule have essentially been unable to work since 1992 when the municipality closed down the music and entertainment venues that had been the lifeblood of the community and a major tourist attraction. With this source of income gone, the Roma of Sulukule have found it increasingly difficult to earn a living. The residents of Sulukule have been offered the opportunity to purchase the new homes that will be built as part of the project. However, the homes are quite expensive and, given the Romani community’s lack of employment and income, this is an empty gesture. The offer of housing in Tasoluk is also well beyond the means of the current residents of Sulukule, making it all the more likely that the majority of them will be forced to live on the streets. On April 4, members of the Helsinki Commission sent a letter to Turkish Prime Minister Tayip Erdogan, expressing concern about the Sulukule transformation project. The Commissioners urged the Prime Minister to find a solution that would ensure that the residents of Sulukule are treated with dignity and respect, that their culture and contribution to the history of Istanbul are preserved, and that they are given the opportunity to work, provide shelter and education for their families and contribute fully to Turkish society. The letter was authored by Co-Chairmen of the Helsinki Commission Congressman Alcee L. Hastings and Senator Benjamin L. Cardin, along with Commissioners Congressmen Joseph R. Pitts and G.K. Butterfield.

  • Crossing Boarders, Keeping Connected: Women, Migration and Development in the OSCE Region

    The hearing will focus on the impact of migration on family and society, the special concerns of migrant women of color, and the economic contributions of women migrants to their home country through remittances. According to the United Nations, women are increasingly migrating on their own as main economic providers and heads of households. While the number of women migrants is on the rise, little is known about the economic and social impact of this migration on their home country.

  • OSCE Partner States and Neighbors Overwhelmed By Iraqi Refugees: Band-Aid Solutions to Implosion in the Middle East?

    This hearing, chaired by Commissioner Alcee L. Hastings, focused on the Iraqi refugee crisis.  Witnesses from the U.S. Department of State, Homeland Security, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees testified on the overall situation.  The mayor of Sodertalje, Sweden, which has taken in 5% of all Iraqi refugees, testified about the strain on his town’s resources and the need for action to address the crisis.  A representative of the Arab Community Center for Economic and Social Service testified that many more resources were needed to successfully integrate Iraqi refugees into American communities.

  • Freedom of the Media in the OSCE Region Part 2

    Freedom of media is one of the cornerstones of democracy, and recognized as such under international human rights law and in numerous OSCE commitments.  Moreover, a free and independent media is not only an essential tool for holding governments accountable; the media can serve as an agent of change when it shines a light into the darkest crevices of the world (examining environmental degradation, corporate or government corruption, trafficking in children, and healthcare crises in the world's most vulnerable countries, etc.) Freedom of the media is closely connected to the broader right to freedom of speech and expression and other issues including public access to information and the conditions necessary for free and fair elections.  The hearing will attempt to illustrate the degree in which freedom of the media is obstructed in the greater OSCE region.

  • Mediterranean Partner Hosts Congressional Staff: Stresses Peace and Security

    By Winsome Packer, Staff Advisor Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Mediterranean Partner, Jordan, hosted a U.S. House of Representatives staff delegation to Jordan, during June 30-July 8, 2007, on which the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) was represented. The visit aimed to enhance understanding within the U.S. Congress of Jordan's role in promoting peace and security in the Middle East region, including the government’s efforts to combat terrorism, advance the Israeli-Palestinian peace process; promote security and political reconciliation in Iraq; and institute democratic and economic reforms internally. CSCE Chairman, Alcee L. Hastings currently serves as the Special Representative on Mediterranean Affairs for the Parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE, and strongly supports staff engagement with Jordanian leaders to further these efforts. The OSCE and CSCE have long recognized that security concerns in the Mediterranean region bear upon European security and have considered the applicability of a Helsinki model for the region in various meetings and conferences. While recent years have seen a setback in Western efforts to advance peace and democratic values in the Middle East region as a whole, Jordan, which became an OSCE Mediterranean Partner in 1998, continues to make strides in both areas, through the government’s commitment to achieving security and prosperity for its people. U.S.-Jordanian Relations Addressing the congressional staff delegation, U.S. Ambassador to Jordan, David Hale outlined U.S. priorities in Jordan: (1) resolving the situation in Iraq; (2) furthering efforts toward a two state solution for the Israelis and Palestinians; (3) addressing the Iranian threat; and (4) supporting the Jordanian reform agenda (political, social, and economic). Highlighting Jordan’s role as one of America’s closest allies in the Middle East region, the Ambassador noted that Jordan collaborates with the United States in pursuing a peaceful resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict; working toward stability, security, and the integration on Sunni leaders in the Iraqi government; and combating terrorism. Ambassador Hale offered that that the U.S. is committed to a two state solution for the Israelis and Palestinians. He said that King Abdullah is concerned about the crumbling of the peace process, but Jordanians feel that the peace process bodes favorably for them because of their historical role and location. Ambassador Hale underscored Jordan’s security concerns and the country’s efforts to improve border security. He explained that the security concerns stem from the influx of Iraqi refugees, foreign labor, and other elements crossing into Jordan, adding that while Jordan has benefited economically from redevelopment and security initiatives in Iraq, the refugee situation has added to education, health care, and housing demands and increased security concerns. The Ambassador further elaborated that within the region, there is greater concern regarding security threats on the Israeli-Syrian border, and that the U.S. is providing border security assistance to Jordan in the form of funding, training and technology. Ambassador Hale also expressed concern regarding the Iranian threat to regional security. He noted that while the division of Iraq is not a foregone conclusion, there is broad concern that Iran would be the winner in such a scenario. Peace and Security Concerns: Jordanian Perspectives The Israeli-Palestinian issue and the situation in Iraq dominated the staff delegation’s meetings with members of the Jordanian Parliament and other leaders in the government. During official meetings, Jordanian leaders emphasized to the visiting staff delegation that peace and security in the region hinges foremost, upon a resolution on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The U.S. was repeatedly criticized for not exercising adequate leadership and effort to help bring a peaceful and just resolution to the conflict. Broad concerns were expressed by members of the Jordanian government that the U.S. is not listening to the advice offered by regional leaders in addressing problems in the Middle East. Jordanian Prime Minister, Dr. Marouf Bakhit, pointed out that while Jordan shares with the U.S. the goal of a stable and secure Middle East, the U.S. does not give adequate weight to advice from leaders in the region. Dr. Bakhit said that the Palestinian-Israeli issue is the central security concern in the Middle East and the major source of problems between the U.S. and countries in the region. He observed that the U.S. resorted to military tools in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, and has remained fixated on military tools, rather than a mixture of political and economic instruments, as they had expected. He continued that there is concern that an anti-Western feeling due to the unjust treatment of the Palestinians is growing, and that there is a perception that the West (U.S.) maintains a double standard where Israel is concerned. He said that this issue has never been addressed and it is fueling resentment. Prime Minister Bakhit told the staff delegation that he was concerned that Iran is the strongest player in Iraq and about the influence of Iranian proxies, Hezbollah and Hamas, on regional stability. Dr. Bakhit added that the Islamist parties have 17 out of the 110 seats in the Jordanian Parliament and expressed his optimism that this was due to their “moderate behavior” and participation in the political process. The Prime Minister spoke favorably of the upcoming municipal elections (occurred on 7/31, but the Islamists parties boycotted the elections). The Prime Minister expressed satisfaction with Jordanian-Israeli relations since the signing of the peace agreement between the two countries. He added that the major issue between Jordan and Israel was the Israeli-Palestinian problem, which lies at the heart of the broader Middle East issues. He further said that Israelis and Arabs should both be blamed for not pushing forward by adopting the Arab Initiative, which in his view, would have addressed collective security concerns. Dr. Bakhit said that the Arabs did not adequately market/explain the initiative to the Israeli public. He contended that the U.S. is circumventing the issue by talking about democratization and while “everybody is pushing Abu Masem (President Abbas), everybody is letting him down.” The Prime Minister concluded that perhaps the present situation suits Israel best because the Palestinians are weaker. Members of the Jordanian Senate and House of Representatives added their criticism of the U.S. for not adequately considering advice from Middle East leaders. Several senators, including Senator Leila Sharaf, said that the approaches adopted by the U.S. came from external viewpoints, and that the policies being implemented to address regional problems are not appropriate. As a result, issues such as Iraq and Palestinian conflict for example, are becoming more complicated. Senator Sharaf warned that if the Palestinian problem was not tackled in the appropriate manner and with urgency, the U.S. would see a greater crisis in the region. Concerns were also expressed regarding the Palestinian leadership and the security situation in the West Bank. Senator Sharaf stated that President Abbas will have to demonstrate that the moderates are right; that lip service to this effect will not suffice; and that those promising aid to the Palestinian Authority must act soon. She warned that President Abbas will have to deliver real results. It was further stated that support for President Abbas would likely increase as he returns to the Peace Process. Criticism was directed at Israel for not releasing all of the Palestinian Authority funds that the Israeli Government is holding and for imprisoning more than 11,000 Palestinians. Concern was also raised regarding the security situation in the West Bank (which they reported, is also a worry to the Israelis). It was also pointed out that Jordan offered a Palestinian security force that they trained to address this concern five years ago, and that the Israelis promised to consider the matter, but failed to act on it. One Senator stated in strong terms that “the Palestinians are the only people who are still under occupation.” He said that “incursions by an occupying country creates instability,” and has led to a rise in fundamentalism. He reiterated that addressing the Palestinian crisis was the most pressing priority and that a failure to do so is hampering U.S. relations with people in Jordan and the region. He further argued that the money being spent fighting terrorism would be better used for investing in the country. In his view, this would be tackling the reasons that terrorism exists, rather than focusing on its symptoms. Stating that the image of the U.S. is steadily deteriorating, he urged that the U.S. reexamine its foreign policy and support the Arab Peace Initiative. The strongest criticism of the U.S. pertained to the situation in Iraq. Members of the Jordanian House and Senate criticized the U.S. for dismantling the Iraqi army and other security infrastructure as well as government institutions. The House Speaker pointed out that anyone that wanted a job under Saddam Hussein’s regime had to be a member of the Baath Party (but was not necessarily a Hussein supporter). He stressed that the U.S. alone could not bring security to Iraq and that the Iraqis themselves have to do so, but that the current Iraqi government resisted rehiring those that were let go, who could help to improve security. The Speaker said that the U.S. is in a very bad position in Iraq; the conflict has become bigger than Iraq; and the instability in the region is affecting commerce as well as the social and political dynamics. He characterized the Iraqi government as weak, noting that Iraq’s military is incapable of defeating the armed militias. In fact, he said, some of the Iraqi forces are militia members themselves. Concerns about adverse Iranian influence in Iraq and Lebanon were also raised. In decrying the many mistakes made by the U.S. in Iraq, including treating the Sunnis as though they were the legitimate leaders, the House Speaker observed that Iran has a very strong influence in Iraq. He argued that the Shias’ underdog status benefited Iran and that the U.S. actions, in this regard, fulfilled the Iranian government’s desire to be a major player in the region. The Speaker advised that the U.S. schedule a withdrawal of its forces as part of a package, including aid to military and other security forces, as well as reconciliation efforts that include all factions. He expressed confidence that a willingness for conciliation exists among Iraqis. He also cautioned that the U.S. withdrawal will bring added dangers as killings increase, Turkey becomes involved, and Iran increases its involvement. On Lebanon, the Speaker expressed concern regarding the ongoing conflict among the various factions. He said that external forces were preventing the Lebanese from reaching agreement. The issues of the approximately one million Iraqi refugees in Jordan and the related economic burden on the Jordanian government were also raised. One speaker stated that while some of the refugees had resources to invest, they do not pay taxes in Jordan. The level of U.S. financial support to Jordan was called insufficient, in comparison to that provided to Israel and Egypt. It was argued that Jordan needs support for its armed forces and police as well as in efforts to combat arms and drug trafficking, economic development, and water projects. The leader of the Islamic Action Front (IAF) in the Parliament argued that the Iraq situation illuminated the lies of the U.S. government regarding Iraq’s possession of weapons of mass destruction. He maintained that the U.S. invaded Iraq for oil and for Israel, and criticized the result of U.S. actions in Iraq: one million Iraqis killed; U.S. division of Iraq; and the sectarian violence. He said that the U.S. must set a timetable to withdraw from Iraq. The IAF leader contended that the instability in Iraq is affecting Jordan and its economy, including trade with Lebanon. Noting, “We don’t hate Americans,” the head of the IAF followed that “we hate Zionists.” He charged that U.S. government is biased in favor of the Israelis; the U.S. supports Israeli aggression; and that the U.S. policies and lack of compassion for the Palestinians creates hatred toward Americans. He stated that “people don’t accept Israelis in the region, although regimes deal with them.” He further criticized the U.S. for calling for democracy, then refusing to accept the results of the Palestinian elections. He said “the U.S. wants democracy according to its own terms, not according to the will of the people.” He argued that these actions undermine the United States’ image in the region The staff delegation also met with Prince Feisal, who addressed Jordanian homeland security concerns, and Queen Rania, who noted that the human aspect of the Palestinian issue must be given attention. Prince Feisal observed that today’s concept of homeland security is more comprehensive, incorporating regional cooperation in combating terrorism and the trafficking of weapons into Jordan. He praised Jordan’s cooperation with the U.S. in intelligence sharing, noting that there is greater reliance on technology and information sharing. He added that Jordan has been targeted by Al Qaeda inside and outside of Iraq “because of differences in opinion.” He stated that extremist elements, such as Hamas continue to attempt to push weapons and people into Jordan while working to create allies inside the country. Queen Rania offered that while she understood that Hamas is not an entity with which people want to work, the reality is that a significant percentage of the Palestinian people are living under their control and under the poverty threshold. She added that Fatah will have to demonstrate the ability to deliver and get rid of corrupt elements. The queen said that that the radicals are using the Palestinian situation to spread their message and that all of the radical forces in the region are linked. Noting that today, the U.S. is viewed as a super power in decline, she advised that the U.S. exercise care in how it views the world and how it employs its power.

  • Lebanon: Development and Prospects

    This briefing, which CSCE Staff Advisor Chadwick R. Gore moderated, was held to discuss the latest developments in Lebanon following the withdrawal of Syrian troops. According to Sen. Sam Brownback, who was CSCE Chairman at the time of the briefing, “With the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon, we have entered a whole new phase in the history of the Middle East.” The briefing’s witnesses, then, were utilized to offer unique insights on what the implications were for Lebanon’s and the region’s future. The witnesses in this briefing were Dr. Walid Phares and Joe Baini. Dr. Walid Phares was the senior fellow at the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, as well as a delegate of the Lebanese Diaspora (WLCU) to the United Nations. Joe Baini was the president of the World Lebanon Cultural Union. A hearing that was held the same year and addressed the Russia-Syrian connection and its effect on Lebanon predated the briefing.

  • The Russian-Syrian Connection: Thwarting Democracy in the Middle East and the Greater OSCE Region

    This hearing explored the destabilizing role that Syria and its support to terrorist organizations play in the security of surrounding countries, such as Iraq and Israel. The hearing examined the special relationship between Russia and Syria and this relationship’s destabilizing effects on the region. The Commissioners and witnesses reviewed Russian arms sales to Syria and the Syrian support for Hezbollah, both of which are affecting the security of Israel and Lebanon.

  • The Middle East: Would the Helsinki Process Apply?

    This hearing, presided over by Commissioner Chris Smith, discussed the prospect of having an OSCE-like organization that would apply to the Middle East. While Rep. Smith acknowledges the argument that a mechanism like the OSCE for the Middle East would not be appropriate, due to the fact that it is a different region, and, of course, such a thing would be agreed upon at a different time, there is an argument to be made that the substantial gulf between the Soviet Union and the U.S. and the gulf that exists among many Middle Eastern countries is are analogous. In fact, a provision of the bilateral treaty between Israel and Jordan envisioned the possibility of creation of a Helsinki-like framework for the Middle East. Issues, however, are likely to arise, such as: To what extent are leaders from the Middle East willing to take ownership of such a process? Is Islam compatible with democratic governance? Would such a process be comprehensive? Which countries would or should be involved?

  • Democracy and Human Rights in the Mediterranean Partner States of the OSCE: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia

    Ronald J. McNamara , Deputy Chief of Staff at the Commission, held this briefing in advance of a series of meetings that took place a week later in Rome in conjunction with the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly.  Since its inception, the OSCE has included a Mediterranean dimension -   Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia are currently  designated as Mediterranean Partners for Cooperation, a special status similar to that of observer status in other multilateral organizations.  Lebanon, Libya, and Syria had status in the OSCE through the mid-1990s. Joined by panellists Joe Stork, Karen Hanrahan, and Frank Smyth, McNamara highlighted the Mediterranean Partners’ disregard for the OSCE’s human dimension. The Panelist commented upon democracy and human rights violations within the members of the Mediteranean Partners, including media restrictions, freedoms of religion and speech, torture, trafficking, anti-Semitism, due process, and minority rights and torture.

  • U.S. Statements at the 1999 OSCE Review Conference

    In February 1999, officials from 90 governments, including representatives from many OSCE participating States, visited Washington for the First Global Forum on Fighting Corruption among justice and security officials. Participants concluded that their governments must cooperate more closely if they were to succeed in promoting public integrity and controlling corruption among their officials. OSCE efforts served as an example to others when the international community gathered in the Netherlands in 2001 for the Second Global Forum on Fighting Corruption.

  • Our Impact by Country

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