Briefing with Alexandr NikitinThursday, July 20, 2000
On behalf of Chairman Chris Smith, CSCE Chief of Staff Dorothy Taft addressed Alexandr Nikitin’s personal legal case against the Russian government for his dedication to environmentalism. Nikitin called speaks of the government’s harassment of grassroots advocates in Russia and their repeated failure to find him guilty in court. Alexandr Nikitin spoke of his prolonged legal case, which was reopened three times, and expressed his desire to help others who find themselves in similar situations with Russian law. He also addressed Russia’s abolishment of the State Committee to Protect the Environment and the overall lack of environmentalism in Russia.
Change in CroatiaTuesday, February 15, 2000
Mr. Speaker, in October of last year, I expressed concerns in this Chamber on the condition of democracy in Croatia. At that time, the leadership of Croatia was resisting the transition towards free elections, stalling the construction of democratic institutions, flaunting the rule of law, and squashing ethnic diversity. Those that held power were maintaining it in two significant ways. The first was through the manipulation of the political system to their advantage, including, in particular, efforts to control the media and the unwillingness to allow free and fair elections. Second, there was heavy reliance on nationalist passions for support. Zagreb's policies swayed the loyalties of Croats in neighboring Bosnia and made it difficult for the displaced Serb population to return to the country. Since last October, things have changed drastically and for the better. In the Parliamentary election of January 3, the desire of the people for change was manifested as the party that had ruled since the fall of communism was defeated by an opposition coalition led by the new Prime Minister, Ivica Racan. Meanwhile, in a special presidential election on February 7 to succeed the late Franjo Tudjman, Stipe Mesic won on promises of reform, of a more democratic political system with diminished power for the presidency, of greater cooperation with The Hague in the prosecution of war criminals, of progress in the implementation of the Dayton Accords in Bosnia, and of the return of Croatia's displaced Serb population. These changes have been universally applauded, specifically by Secretary of State Madeleine Albright during her visit to Croatia on February 2. In fact, Mr. Speaker, I join the Secretary of State in commending the new policies of Croatia's leaders, and I complement our able Ambassador to Croatia, William Montgomery, for his role in pressing for democratic change. Mr. Speaker, it is good that Croatia's new leadership is talking about substantial reform. However, we must be sure that it is not just talk. We must be sure to encourage Croatia to move closer towards full freedom, true justice, and greater prosperity for all of her citizens, regardless of ethnicity. We must continue to press for the surrender to The Hague of those indicted for war crimes. As we do, we must be ready to support Croatia, even as we have been ready to criticize Croatia's shortcomings in the past. Recent violence in southeastern Europe underscores the need for true democracy in the region. In closing, I congratulate Croatia's new leadership and its promise of progress. Now that reform is on the horizon, I am hopeful that Croatia will soon be an integrated partner in European affairs.
U.S. Statements on the Human Dimension, 1996 OSCE Vienna Review Conference and Lisbon SummitFriday, November 01, 1996
This compendium of statements illustrates the U.S. perspective that one of the key and distinguishing features of the OSCE is the interlocking framework of critical, politically binding commitments which provide a common set of principles to which all participating States can aspire. The OSCE draws its real strength and practical flexibility from participating states' commitments to the values of the original Helsinki Act, rather than from a legalized, treaty-based institutional structure. A fundamental strength of the OSCE is the review process, which provides a regular opportunity to assess a participating states' efforts to further the realization of the Helsinki Accords within its own borders, and in its relations with other OSCE states. The OSCE is increasingly a pillar of European security. By facilitating honest implementation review the OSCE can strengthen security links based on common values.
The Legacy of ChernobylTuesday, April 23, 1996
Rep. Chris Smith (NJ-04) presided over this hearing, which marked the tenth anniversary of the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl, the worst of its kind. Ten years out, what transpired had grave implications for Ukraine and Belarus. More specifically, according to Smith, “The explosion of the reactor at Chornobyl released 200 more times more radioactivity than was released by the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined.” Likewise, thyroid cancer in Belarusian children was extremely entrenched. Perhaps most worryingly, at the time of this hearing, the obliterated fourth nuclear reactor’s “sarcophagus” had developed serious cracks, which, if uncontained, could have released tons of radioactive dust into the environment.
Chernobyl: Five Years LaterFriday, April 26, 1991
Held as a fifth anniversary commemoration of the disaster at Chernobyl, the briefing featured a short film that was produced by an Australian film company on Chernobyl’s progress in the five years after the crisis. Afterward, Samuel Wise, staff director at the Commission, led the discussion on the damage Chernobyl continued to have on surrounding regions in 1991. Witnesses Dr. David Marples and Dr. Natalia Preobrazhensk addressed the environmental concerns and political authority over Chernobyl, along with how Ukraine’s judicial system had dealt with the situation. They also acknowledged the situation of Soviet nuclear power at the time.
Sofia CSCE Meeting on the Protection of the EnvironmentThursday, September 28, 1989
The purpose of this hearing, which Sen. Dennis DeConcini and Rep. Steny H. Hoyer chaired, was to examine the first meeting in CSCE history devoted exclusively to the environment. The hearing predated the Sofia Meeting itself, whose purpose was to address environmental problems that recognize no borders and threaten every individual’s right to a peaceful and secure life. Unfortunately, the Sofia Meeting had been marred by the Bulgarian government’s lack of tolerance in its treatment of its Turkish and Muslim minorities, specifically the Bulgarian government’s campaign to assimilate Turkish minorities, which constituted a serious violation of human rights. Needless to say, then, intersectionality existed and continues to exist among environmental issues and the Helsinki process’s other top priorities.
The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) promotes a strong and vibrant transatlantic relationship and fosters a peaceful and prosperous European continent. Slovakia, which holds the 2019 OSCE chairmanship, considers energy security a priority for what the OSCE terms the second dimension, the economic and environmental portfolio. In addition, Helsinki Commission Chairman Alcee Hastings has identified principled foreign policy—including the sustainable management of resources; battling corruption; and protecting the fundamental freedoms of all people—as a priority for the commission during the 116th Congress.
At this briefing, the Helsinki Commission invited panelists to discuss the potential use of energy, specifically oil and gas projects, to achieve foreign policy goals, as well as the extent to which energy independence can reduce the ability of hostile actors to destabilize the region by threatening to cut off access to energy supplies. Experts weighed in on the nuances behind pipeline politics in Europe against the background of the current state of oil and gas markets, alongside strategic differences among European nations and between the European Union (EU) as an entity vs. its Member States. Panelists also discussed the ability of the United States to influence European pipeline politics, particularly given concerns raised regarding Russia’s Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline in the wake of Russian aggression in Ukraine.
Senior Associate at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and noted energy expert Ed Chow emphasized that “mega” pipelines are expensive projects that cost billions of dollars and take at least three to five years to complete if everything goes well.
Although such projects may be examined later from a foreign policy perspective, they have long-planned commercial justifications: pipelines are sponsored by oil and gas producers who seek to bring their product to market in the most efficient way possible. In many countries, governments may subsidize or invest in pipelines as public infrastructure. Nevertheless, unless the government is willing to bear the full financial risk, these projects require financially committed shippers of oil and gas, and a bankable market or creditworthy buyers at the end of the pipe.
Chow noted that in Washington, analysts often debate whether certain projects are economically viable or politically motivated, but that the pertinent test is whether projects are bankable or not. If they are bankable, they will be built. If they are not bankable, they won’t.
Colin Cleary, Director for Energy Diplomacy for Europe, Western Hemisphere and Africa, U.S. Department of State, highlighted America’s longstanding commitment to European energy security based on deep political, economic, cultural, and historical ties. He stated that the United States is invested in Europe’s political and economic welfare and stability, including its energy security. He noted that Europe relies significantly on Russia to meet its energy needs and that Russia has demonstrated its willingness to use energy as a geopolitical tool.
Cleary also observed that the United States considers Russia’s Nord Stream 2 and the TurkStream pipelines as fundamentally political, rather than commercial, projects. By bypassing Ukraine, the pipelines will destabilize Ukraine economically and strategically—depriving the country of an estimated $3 billion a year in gas transit revenue—and to punish Ukraine for choosing to step outside of Moscow’s geopolitical orbit. He noted that all countries that are highly dependent on Russia for energy are vulnerable to Russian political and economic pressure. He emphasized later that the United States is not alone in opposing Nord Stream 2.
In response, Cleary suggested pursuing diversification through liquified natural gas (LNG), nuclear energy, and renewable sources. He noted that the United States supports the European Union’s projects of common interest, such as greater interconnection in the European gas transit system, LNG hookups, and initiatives like Baltic Pipe, which is designed to channel Norwegian gas to Poland and the Southern Gas Corridor.
Atlantic Council Senior Fellow David Koranyi emphasized that the state of energy independence in many European countries has improved greatly in the last decade. He noted that his home country of Hungary has about 6.3 billion cubic meters of gas storage facility, and that capacity is growing. While noting the dangers of both Nord Stream 2 and TurkStream, he also observed that the current negative rhetoric from Washington against these projects is unhelpful. Instead, the focus should be on what can be done in cooperation with European allies. For example, the Three Seas Initiative, which Congress is considering funding, would be a positive forum for strengthening cooperation.
Koranyi also pointed to projects such as the Krk LNG terminal in Croatia as a way to build the infrastructure needed for greater diversification. He cautioned against putting too much hope in the East Mediterranean becoming a major source of natural gas to Europe any time soon, as the region faces its own geopolitical and economic challenges.
Efgan Nifti, Director of the Caspian Policy Center, discussed the Southern Gas Corridor, stretching from the Caspian Sea to Western Europe, which has been a major focus of U.S. energy policy in Europe and Eurasia since the 1990s. He stated that the Southern Gas Corridor, often called the fourth energy corridor for Europe, is materializing rapidly. Gas already is being delivered to Turkey through the South Caucasus Gas Pipeline, with the Trans Adriatic and Trans Anatolian Pipelines soon to follow.