Vienna Review Meeting of the CSCE - Phase III and IVFriday, January 01, 1988
The main activity of the Vienna Meeting throughout Phases III and IV was the presentation and negotiation of proposals for inclu sion in the concluding document of the meeting. The number (more than 160), complexity and controversial nature of many of these proposals led to the extension of the Vienna Meeting well beyond its target closing date of July 31. These factors, along with other elements such as continuing major shortcomings in the implementa tion of existing commitments, are largely responsible for the continuation of the Vienna Meeting into 1988. The slow pace of progress already evident in Phase II continued through the next phase. Each side defended its own proposals but showed little disposition to begin the process of compromise which could lead to the conclusion of the meeting. The main procedural development during this phase was the appointment of coordinators from the neutral and non-aligned states to guide the work of the drafting groups. This development provided greater order and structure for the proceedings but did little to advance the drafting work or to induce compromises. Other major developments during this phase were the introduction of the long-awaited Western proposal on military security and the tabling of a comprehensive compromise proposed in Basket III by two neutral delegations, Austria and Switzerland. Both proposals were put forth at the very end of the phase and thus did not have much impact until the next phase. The Western (NATO) proposal on military security questions was designed as a response to the Eastern proposal which envisioned two main objectives: another round of negotiations on confidence and security-building measures (CSBMs) to build upon the successful Stockholm meeting and the initiation of negotiations on conventional disarmament, both within the same CSCE forum. The Western response to this proposal was delayed primarily because of United States and French differences over the connection between the conventional arms negotiations and the CSCE process, the French arguing that the negotiations should be an integral part of the process and the U.S. insisting that they be independent. The issue was resolved by agreement that the negotiations would be "within the framework of the CSCE," but should remain autonomous.
List of Organizations Involved in Exchange Programs with the Soviet Union and Eastern EuropeWednesday, October 01, 1986
The Commission developed this report to help interested persons and organizations participate in exchange programs with the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe: Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria. It lists organizations which conduct exchange programs and other contacts with these countries. The parties to the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe declared their intention to expand cooperation in security, economic, humanitarian, information, culture, and education affairs and to respect and put into practice certain basic principles, including those of human rights. The Final Act was signed in Helsinki on August 1, 1975, by 35 heads of state or government, including the United States, Canada, and every state in Europe except Albania. The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (Helsinki Commission) was created as an independent government agency in 1976 to monitor compliance with the Final Act and to encourage U.S. governmental and private programs to expand East-West economic and cultural cooperation and exchange of people and ideas. In the Final Act, the signatories express the view that cultural exchanges and development of relations in education and science contribute to the strengthening of peace, better mutual under standing, and enrichment of the human personality. In the Com mission's view, exchange programs with the Soviet bloc countries break down barriers and lessen distrust. They help Americans learn about the views and goals of these societies. Such programs help expose the peoples of these countries to the values and goals of our pluralistic society. Critical to such programs is that Americans are given the opportunity to tell the Soviets and their allies on a personal level about their concern for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Podcast: Lost and Found
Only July 11, 1995, more than 8,000 Bosnian Muslim men and boys from the town of Srebrenica in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina were rounded up, gunned down, and buried in mass graves by Bosnian Serb forces, in what was the worst mass killing in Europe since World War II. The brutality of the genocide of Srebrenica was compounded by the deliberate effort by those responsible to hide their crimes. The use of mass graves and the subsequent movement of remains of the murdered using heavy machinery meant that the identification of the victims seemed nearly impossible at the time. Ahead of the 25th anniversary of the Srebrenica genocide, Kathryne Bomberger, director general of the International Commission on Missing Persons, discusses how ICMP has helped families of the Srebrenica victims find closure and pursue justice. She also discusses the commission’s evolution from dealing with the conflict in the former Yugoslavia to its work worldwide—including in Syria, Colombia, and elsewhere—today. "Helsinki on the Hill" is series of conversations hosted by the U.S. Helsinki Commission on human rights and comprehensive security in Europe and beyond. The Helsinki Commission, formally known as the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, promotes human rights, military security, and economic cooperation in 57 countries in Europe, Eurasia, and North America. Transcript | Episode 12 | Lost and Found: How the International Commission on Missing Persons Helps Find Closure and Pursue Justice
Human rights within states are crucial to security among states. Prioritizing respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, defending the principles of liberty, and encouraging tolerance within societies must be at the forefront of America's foreign policy agenda. Peace, security, and prosperity cannot be sustained if national governments repress their citizens, stifle their media, or imprison members of the political opposition. Authoritarian regimes become increasingly unstable as citizens chafe under the bonds of persecution and violence, and pose a danger not only to their citizens, but also to neighboring nations. The Helsinki Commission strives to ensure that the protection of human rights and defense of democratic values are central to U.S. foreign policy; that they are applied consistently in U.S. relations with other countries; that violations of Helsinki provisions are given full consideration in U.S. policymaking; and that the United States holds those who repress their citizens accountable for their actions. This includes battling corruption; protecting the fundamental freedoms of all people, especially those who historically have been persecuted and marginalized; promoting the sustainable management of resources; and balancing national security interests with respect for human rights to achieve long-term positive outcomes rather than short-term gains.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Beginning with the staff observation of the first multi-party elections in Bosnia-Herzegovina in November 1990, the Helsinki Commission has consistently been the most active body in the U.S. Congress in terms of following developments in that country and advocating policy responses.
The first Congressional Delegation visit organized by the Commission took place in 1991, more than a year before the Bosnian conflict began. On several occasions, Helsinki Commissioners traveled on the military airlift providing humanitarian aid to Sarajevo during the course of the 1992-95 conflict, and several delegations traveling to neighboring countries like Croatia, Romania and Macedonia were undertaken to meet with Bosnian refugees, assess the potential for conflict spillover, and encourage compliance with internationally imposed sanctions on Milosevic’s Serbia.
The aggression and ethnic cleansing which took place in Bosnia-Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995 – and the war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide which defined those policies – remain the most severe violations of OSCE principles in a participating State since the Helsinki Final Act was signed in 1975. The Helsinki Commission documented the atrocities and abuses through regular congressional hearings and briefings and used these fora as well as correspondence, press conferences, meetings with senior Administration officials and legislation to discuss and advocate policy responses.
Beyond the initial efforts to merely contain the conflict, Helsinki Commissioners pressed U.S. leadership for decisive efforts to stop it, including the use of NATO assets to end the siege of Sarajevo and protect UN-designated safe havens, as well as to lift the arms embargo imposed on Bosnia-Herzegovina. Other Commission responses included early and active support for the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) to hold those responsible for atrocities to account, increased efforts to provide humanitarian aid, the greater acceptance of Bosnian refugees into the United States and the secondment of Commission staff to an OSCE spillover prevention mission.
The Dayton Agreement of November 1995 ended the Bosnian conflict. While concerned about some of the compromises made in Dayton for the sake of securing peace, the Commission continued a high-level of public activity to ensure that the core element of the agreement – Bosnia-Herzegovina as a viable state with its sovereignty and territorial integrity respected by its neighbors and with its citizens able to return to the country and their homes to begin the process of rebuilding, recovery and reconciliation – would be realized and sustained. The Commission focused particularly on the conduct of post-Dayton elections, including through their observation, assistance for democratic forces and independent institutions in Bosnia-Herzegovina, protections for displaced persons returning to areas where they now found themselves as highly vulnerable ethnic minorities, the exhumation of mass graves for the sake of criminal prosecution and ascertaining the fate of missing persons, and cooperation with the international tribunal by all states concerned. These efforts continue to this day.
New issues have also arisen, including the commemoration of the Srebrenica genocide, Bosnian aspirations to join NATO and the European Union, and the development of more effective government and adoption of constitutional reform measures that are necessary to make that happen. Helsinki Commissioners continue to press for continued U.S. engagement and international vigilance, including through continued legislative efforts in the U.S. Congress, to ensure the country completes the reform process and is integrated into European and Euro-Atlantic institutions along with its neighbors.
A 2009 visit was the latest formal Commission visit to the country and actively sought to encourage political reforms in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Although Bosnia-Herzegovina has demonstrated the capacity to implement reasonably free and fair elections, Commission staff continues to observe the electoral process, most recently in October 2014.
Staff Contact: Bob Hand, senior policy advisor