List of Organizations Involved in Exchange Programs with the Soviet Union and Eastern EuropeWednesday, October 01, 1986
The Commission developed this report to help interested persons and organizations participate in exchange programs with the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe: Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria. It lists organizations which conduct exchange programs and other contacts with these countries. The parties to the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe declared their intention to expand cooperation in security, economic, humanitarian, information, culture, and education affairs and to respect and put into practice certain basic principles, including those of human rights. The Final Act was signed in Helsinki on August 1, 1975, by 35 heads of state or government, including the United States, Canada, and every state in Europe except Albania. The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (Helsinki Commission) was created as an independent government agency in 1976 to monitor compliance with the Final Act and to encourage U.S. governmental and private programs to expand East-West economic and cultural cooperation and exchange of people and ideas. In the Final Act, the signatories express the view that cultural exchanges and development of relations in education and science contribute to the strengthening of peace, better mutual under standing, and enrichment of the human personality. In the Com mission's view, exchange programs with the Soviet bloc countries break down barriers and lessen distrust. They help Americans learn about the views and goals of these societies. Such programs help expose the peoples of these countries to the values and goals of our pluralistic society. Critical to such programs is that Americans are given the opportunity to tell the Soviets and their allies on a personal level about their concern for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Macedonia was an early concern of the Helsinki Commission during the course of Yugoslavia’s decade of violent disintegration in the 1990s. With little preparation for independent statehood, the country had to adjust to economic separation from the other Yugoslav republics, enforce sanctions imposed on the remaining Yugoslav federation and contend with an influx of refugees, all while contending with numerous domestic developments and at times facing sanctions and isolation due to its name dispute with Greece. Helsinki-organized congressional delegations concerned with these issues visited Macedonia in 1992 and 1993, during the course of the Bosnian conflict, and the country received additional attention during the course of the 1998-99 Kosovo conflicts.
Commission staff first observed elections in Macedonia in November 1990 and, reflecting ongoing concern about meeting OSCE standards defining free and fair elections, observed subsequent parliamentary and/or presidential elections in 1994, 1998, 1999, 2006, 2008 and 2009. Macedonia was also a country of major concern regarding human trafficking, although over time the efforts by the authorities to combat trafficking have been among the best in the region.
Ethnic tensions between the Macedonian majority and a sizable Albanian minority have been an ongoing concern regarding both human rights and democratic development. The country’s large and relatively active Romani community has also be the subject of Commission interest. Commission hearings focused on the Balkans and the prospects for NATO enlargement have often focused on the destabilizing effects on internal developments as the name dispute has stymied the countries aspirations for European and Euro-Atlantic integration. In recent years, this has been evident in the political crisis marked by widespread domestic surveillance and questionable actions against the country’s media. Noting the OSCE-recognized right to self-identification, the Commission has consistently referred to the country by its constitutional name, from the beginning, however, urging Macedonian authorities to avoid provocative policies implying claims of legitimate concern to Greece.
Staff Contact: Bob Hand, policy advisor